Knowledge Base

Optical network terminals

In fiber-to-the-premises systems, the signal is transmitted to the customer premises using fiber optic technologies. Unlike many conventional telephone technologies, this does not provide power for premises equipment, nor is it suitable for direct connection to customer equipment. An optical network terminal (ONT) is used to terminate the fiber optic line, demultiplex the signal into its component parts (voice telephone, television, and Internet access), and provide power to customer telephones. As the ONT must derive its power from the customer premises electrical supply, many ONTs have the option for a battery backup in order to maintain service in the event of a power outage.

Environmental conditions

According to Telcordia GR-49, requirements for telecommunications NIDs vary based on three categories of environmental conditions:

  1. Normal conditions: This refers to a normal environment that is expected in most areas of any service provider. Temperatures are expected to be in the range of −20 to 32 °C (−4 to 90 °F), and humidity is expected to be less than 90% RH. No unusual contamination is expected.
  2. Severe climatic conditions: These cover environments more severe than those of a normal environment (i.e., higher humidity, high lightning activity, exposure to salt-laden atmosphere, and exposure to contaminants). Temperatures are expected to be in the range of −40 to 43 °C (−40 to 109 °F), and humidity may exceed 90% RH. Jacks installed in NIDs in such environments are known to become contaminated and develop low insulation resistances and low dielectric breakdown voltages when subjected to high humidity. These problems can cause noisy lines or even service outages.
  3. Flooded conditions: These cover areas of a service provider prone to flooding, such as in coastal or flood plain locations. After a flooding incident, temperature is expected to be in the range of 4.5 to 38 °C (40 to 100 °F), and humidity may exceed 90% RH. The requirements are not to determine if the NID will function during a flood, but to review the ability of the NID to function after the flood has subsided.

Service providers must decide which condition best suits their application.

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